In brief:

  • For each unit or module, there are four essential phases of instruction that focus on the intended learning outcome: Introduction, Presentation of Content, Practice and Application.
  • Feedback is a key component of instruction and should be included in planning at every phase of instruction for improved student learning.

Several Instructional Design Models and frameworks that exist outline the entire process of designing a learning experience from analyzing the audience to implementing and revising instruction. Few of them, however, give specific guidelines for planning and organizing instructional activities. Of those that do, the most commonly used frameworks include: Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction, WIPPEA, Merril’s First Principles and the 5E Instructional Model.

Although each of these frameworks is different, they all have three things in common:

  1. They are all centered around the learning outcomes
  2. They all emphasize learner assessment & feedback throughout the process
  3. They all include the following phases of instruction: an Introduction (in one form or another), (presentation of) Content, (guided) Practice, and Application

Regardless of the instructional framework you prefer, we can say that there are certain components that are essential in the design of instruction.

Instructional Planning Framework

The following framework provides a guide on structuring the planning of learning activities for an instructional unit. All phases of instruction must follow this sequence.

Image that illustrates the phases of learning: 1-introduction, 2-content, 3-practice, 4-application/integration. In every phase, you need to establish learning outcomes and plan evaluation and feedback assessments.

Instructional framework:

Watch the video below to learn more about each of the phases of instruction.

The next section will:

  • guide you through the process of developing instructional plans for your course.

Resources & Further Reading

Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction ( Northern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center)

TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 8: Effective Lesson Planning (WIPPEA) (LINCS)

Tanner, K. D. (2010). Order matters: using the 5E model to align teaching with how people learn. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 9(3), 159-164.